Вторник, 12 Декабря, 2017

Supermassive black hole is the most distant ever observed

Colliding protogalaxies less than 1 billion years afer the big bang CC0'There Was No Big Bang: Brazilian Scientist Turns Cosmic Theory Upside Down
Derrick Tucker | 08 Декабря, 2017, 01:41

The oldest and most distant black hole ever observed - a celestial brute 800 million times more massive than the sun - is providing scientists some surprises about the nature of the universe when, on a cosmic scale, it was a mere toddler. Who knows when it actually formed, but astronomers found that it existed when the universe was only 690 million years old - just 5 per cent of the universe's current age of 13.77 billion years! Based on the quasar's redshift, the researchers calculated the mass of the black hole at its center and determined that it is around 800 million times the mass of the sun.

The discovery was part of a concerted, multi-year search for ever more distant quasars led by Fabian Walter and Bram Venemans of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy. What's extraordinary about this black hole, aside from its massive size, is that its discovery will help scientists comprehend the processes of their growth during the time the universe was still forming.

"The most distant quasars can provide key insights to outstanding questions in astrophysics", Space.com quoted the study lead author Eduardo Bañados, an astrophysicist at the Carnegie Institution for Science as saying.

When the black hole formed more than 13 billion years ago, the universe was about half ionized and half neutral, Simcoe said.

Artist's impression of a disc forming into a solar system around a red dwarf
NASA. JPL-Caltech T. Pyle Scientists Reproduce Planet Formation in Lab Model

"What we have found is that the universe was about 50/50 - it's a moment when the first galaxies emerged from their cocoons of neutral gas and started to shine their way out", Simcoe says.

Supermassive black holes are thought to exist at the centre of almost every galaxy in the universe.

This is very unlikely the black holes that form in the present-day universe, which rarely exceed a few dozen solar masses.

Artist's impression of a quasar, an active supermassive black hole with a very high luminosity. "But it's pretty hard to get that kind of a mass that early in the universe".

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Before, scientists thought that if there were black holes that formed soon after the Big Bang, there would need to be certain conditions which would allow the supermassive black hole to be born. During its early stage, the universe went through what is sometimes called the Dark Age - not a metaphor, as it is for the human period, but a truly a dark age as there was no light.

"This is a very exciting discovery", he said. Eventually, gravity condensed matter into the first stars and galaxies, which in turn produced light in the form of photons. Astronomers observe the pattern occurred around 690 million years from the formation of the Universe, even before reionizatsii.

The researchers used FIRE to determine that a large fraction of the hydrogen surrounding the quasar is neutral. At some point, the radiation released by material as it falls into the black hole carries out so much momentum that it blocks new gas from falling in and disrupts the flow.

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